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Genital Warts

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Genital warts represent one of the most prevalent forms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The underlying culprit responsible for these warts is the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV manifests in various strains, and nearly all individuals engaged in sexual activity will inevitably contract at least one strain at some juncture. Genital warts primarily impact the moist genital tissues, assuming the appearance of small, skin-colored protrusions that may resemble cauliflower. In many cases, these warts are too minuscule to discern with the naked eye.

Several variants of genital HPV can induce genital warts, while others have the potential to lead to cancer. Vaccination serves as a means of safeguarding against specific strains of genital HPV.

Genital warts can grow on the:

  • Walls of the vagina.
  • Area between the outer part of the genitals and the anus.
  • Anal canal
  • Tip or shaft of the penis.

Genital warts can also develop in the mouth or throat of a person who has had oral sex with someone infected with HPV.

The indications of genital warts encompass:

  1. Small protuberances within the genital region, which may exhibit a skin-colored appearance or vary in color.
  2. The potential development of a cauliflower-like configuration when several warts cluster in proximity.
  3. Occurrence of itching or discomfort in the genital area.
  4. Experiencing bleeding during sexual intercourse.

It’s worth noting that genital warts can sometimes be exceedingly minuscule and flat, rendering them imperceptible to the naked eye. However, in exceptional cases, they can proliferate into substantial clusters, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Genital warts can affect individuals of all genders, but they are most commonly observed in teenagers and young adults. People assigned male at birth (AMAB) have a slightly higher risk. The likelihood of contracting genital warts is elevated if you engage in unprotected sexual activity without the use of condoms or dental dams, and if you have multiple sexual partners.

How common are genital warts?

Roughly 400,000 individuals, predominantly in their late teens and twenties, contract genital warts annually. Human papillomavirus (HPV), the causative agent of these warts, stands as the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI). In the United States, an estimated 79 million people are affected by HPV. It’s important to note that HPV encompasses a multitude of distinct strains, with only specific types responsible for genital warts. Among these, HPV 6 and HPV 11 are the two strains known to induce genital warts.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes genital warts?

Certain strains of HPV are responsible for the development of genital warts, and these warts are transmitted through skin-to-skin contact during sexual activity. It’s important to differentiate between the HPV strains causing genital warts and those causing warts on other parts of the body, such as the hands or feet. You cannot contract genital warts by touching yourself or someone else who has warts on their hands or feet.

Genital warts can spread through various sexual activities, including:

  1. Intercourse, including anal, vaginal-penile, and vaginal-vaginal.
  2. Genital touching, which involves skin-to-skin contact even without ejaculation.
  3. Engaging in oral sex with a partner who has HPV or genital warts.
  4. Receiving oral sex from a partner who has HPV or who has genital warts on their mouth, lips, or tongue.

It’s worth noting that you can carry the type of HPV that leads to genital warts without actually developing visible warts yourself. This means you can transmit HPV to your partner, and they may subsequently develop genital warts. This complexity can make it challenging to determine which partner initially transmitted the genital warts in a relationship.

What are the symptoms of genital warts?

Warts typically present as textured, skin-colored, or whitish-grey growths on the skin’s surface. In the case of genital warts, they often exhibit a textured, cauliflower-like appearance, although some may appear flat. Generally, genital warts do not cause significant pain. However, on occasion, they may lead to:

  1. Mild bleeding.
  2. A burning sensation.
  3. Discomfort.
  4. Genital itching or irritation.

While some genital warts may be quite small, they are usually palpable or visible. Occasionally, these warts cluster together in groups or grow to a considerable size, resembling stalk-like protrusions. Most warts initially manifest as small, soft growths and may go unnoticed initially.

How soon do genital warts appear after infection?

The timeline for the development of genital warts after sexual contact with someone infected with HPV can vary significantly. While some individuals may develop genital warts within weeks of such contact, it is also common for the warts to manifest months or even years later. Due to this variability, it can indeed be challenging to determine precisely when one acquired genital warts.

Furthermore, it’s important to recognize that it’s possible to carry the HPV virus without displaying visible genital warts. In some cases, warts may develop internally, within the anus or vagina, and remain asymptomatic. When there are no noticeable symptoms, individuals may unknowingly transmit the virus to their sexual partners, emphasizing the importance of regular testing and safe sexual practices.

Diagnosis and Tests

How are genital warts diagnosed?

Doctors can diagnose external genital warts by conducting a visual examination. In some cases, they may request a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Diagnosing internal warts can be more challenging, and different tests and examinations may be employed to detect them.

To diagnose genital warts, healthcare providers may utilize the following tests and procedures:

  1. Pelvic exam: During a pelvic exam, which may include a Pap test, doctors assess the genital area for any cervical changes caused by genital warts. They may also perform a colposcopy, which involves the examination and potential biopsy of the vagina and cervix.
  1. Anal exam: To detect warts inside the anus, doctors employ a device called an anoscope to conduct an examination.

If you suspect you have genital warts, it is crucial to contact a doctor for evaluation. Various other conditions, including different sexually transmitted infections, as well as benign growths like moles or skin tags, can resemble genital warts. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis is essential to receive the appropriate treatment.

Management and Treatment

How are genital warts treated?

Genital warts can potentially resolve on their own as the immune system can combat the underlying infection that causes them. However, they may persist, grow in size, multiply, or become increasingly uncomfortable. Removing genital warts is recommended, not only to alleviate symptoms but also to reduce the likelihood of spreading the infection, as active outbreaks are more contagious. It’s important to note that treatment for genital warts does not equate to a cure.

Several methods are available for the removal of genital warts, and multiple treatments may be necessary to eliminate them. Throughout the treatment process, it is advisable to abstain from sexual contact to prevent transmission.

Doctors may employ the following methods to treat genital warts:

  1. Electrocautery: This involves using an electric current to burn away the warts.
  2. Freezing (cryotherapy): Liquid nitrogen is applied to freeze and destroy the warts.
  3. Laser treatment: Laser light is used to destroy the tiny blood vessels within the warts, cutting off their blood supply.
  4. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): An electrically charged wire loop is utilized to remove warts. This method may be employed for warts on the cervix.
  5. Topical (skin) medicine: A prescription chemical solution or cream is applied once a week for several weeks. This chemical induces blister formation beneath the warts, cutting off their blood supply. In some cases, the provider may apply the chemical solution at their office, and there are also prescription creams for at-home use.
  6. Surgery: For large warts or those unresponsive to other treatments, surgical removal may be necessary.

It’s important to understand that while treatment can remove genital warts, it does not cure the individual of HPV. Even after an outbreak has subsided and warts have been removed, the individual can still potentially transmit HPV to others.

Can I get genital warts more than once?

HPV, the virus responsible for causing genital warts, does not have a cure. Consequently, individuals can experience recurrent episodes of genital warts over time, even after successful treatment to remove the warts. It’s essential to understand that while treatment can manage and alleviate the symptoms associated with genital warts, it does not eliminate the virus itself, which can persist in the body. Practicing safe sex and discussing preventive measures with a doctor are important steps in reducing the risk of recurrent genital warts and the transmission of HPV to others.

What are the complications of genital warts?

It’s generally true that genital warts caused by certain strains of HPV are considered low-risk in terms of serious health complications. The HPV strains responsible for genital warts, such as HPV 6 and HPV 11, are indeed different from the high-risk HPV strains that are associated with an increased risk of cancer, including cervical, anal, and some oral cancers.

However, while genital warts themselves may not lead to serious health complications, it’s crucial to remember that HPV infection, in general, can have more significant health implications. Some high-risk HPV strains can cause cancer, particularly cervical cancer, and are linked to other types of cancers as well. Regular screenings, vaccinations, and safe sexual practices are essential for reducing the overall risk associated with HPV infection, including the risk of cancer. It’s essential to consult with a doctor for guidance on prevention and monitoring for any potential health issues related to HPV.

How do genital warts affect pregnancy?

During pregnancy, having an active outbreak of genital warts can lead to certain complications due to hormonal changes. These complications may include:

  1. Increased bleeding, growth, or multiplication of the warts.

In rare cases, the following complications may occur:

  1. A large wart or a cluster of warts obstructing the birth canal, which may necessitate a cesarean section (C-section) for delivery.
  2. Transmission of HPV to the fetus, resulting in the formation of warts inside the baby’s airway. This condition is known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and is exceedingly rare.

It’s important to note that if you have had genital warts in the past but do not have an active outbreak during pregnancy, you should generally not encounter significant issues related to the warts during your pregnancy. However, it’s essential to discuss any concerns or questions about genital warts and pregnancy with your healthcare provider for appropriate guidance and management.


Is there a vaccine for genital warts?

The HPV vaccine is a powerful tool for protecting against certain types of HPV, including those responsible for genital warts and specific cancers. Given that there are over 100 different types of HPV, the vaccine can provide protection even if you’ve already been infected with one type, as it can safeguard against other more severe strains.

How can I prevent genital warts?

Taking proactive steps to protect yourself from contracting or transmitting HPV, genital warts, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is crucial, especially if you are sexually active. Here are some important measures to consider:

  1. Use condoms or dental dams: Consistently and correctly using condoms or dental dams during sexual activity can help reduce the risk of HPV and other STIs.
  2. Get the HPV vaccine: Vaccination is a highly effective way to protect yourself against certain types of HPV, including those that cause genital warts and some cancers. Consult with your doctor to determine if you are eligible for the vaccine.
  3. Get routine testing and treatment for STIs: Regular STI testing can help detect infections early and ensure prompt treatment if needed.
  4. Inform your sexual partners: If you have been diagnosed with HPV or genital warts, it’s important to communicate this information to your sexual partners so they can seek testing and, if necessary, treatment. Open and honest communication is essential for preventing the spread of STIs.
  5. Be monogamous or limit your number of partners: Reducing the number of sexual partners or maintaining a monogamous sexual relationship can lower the risk of exposure to STIs, including HPV.
  6. Avoid douching: Douching can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the genital area and may increase the risk of infections. It is generally not recommended.

Remember that the best way to protect yourself from STIs is a combination of safe sexual practices, vaccination, and regular healthcare check-ups. Consulting with a doctor can provide personalized guidance on STI prevention and testing based on your individual circumstances.

Outlook / Prognosis

What can I expect if I have genital warts?

Genital warts and the HPV types that cause them are indeed common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It’s correct that these particular types of warts do not increase an individual’s risk of developing cancer, unlike some other high-risk HPV strains.

The experience with genital warts can vary among individuals, with some having them only once, while others may experience recurrent outbreaks. It’s important to understand that while treatment can effectively remove the warts, it does not cure the underlying HPV infection. As a result, individuals may remain infectious, and practicing safe sex with their partners is essential to reduce the risk of transmission.

Regular communication with a doctorr and adherence to safe sex practices are key to managing and minimizing the impact of genital warts and HPV on one’s health and their potential to transmit the virus to others.

Genital warts and pregnancy

Genital warts are generally not considered harmful during pregnancy, but if you have genital warts and are pregnant, it is advisable to seek guidance from a sexual health specialist or healthcare provider who is experienced in managing such cases.

During pregnancy, genital warts may exhibit the following characteristics:

  1. Multiplication and enlargement: Genital warts may grow in size during pregnancy, and if they become very large or cause significant discomfort, they may be considered for removal.
  2. Increased irritation: The presence of genital warts may make the affected area more easily irritated.
  3. Rare transmission to the baby: Although rare, there is a possibility of passing on the HPV virus to the baby during childbirth. This transmission can potentially lead to infections in the baby’s throat or genitals.

It’s important to note that most creams, liquids, and ointments used to treat genital warts are not recommended during pregnancy due to potential risks. As a result, treatment for genital warts is often postponed until after the baby is born. In many cases, genital warts may resolve on their own within about 6 weeks after childbirth. Pregnant individuals should discuss their specific situation with their healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate course of action during pregnancy and postpartum.

Risk factors

It is true that genital HPV is highly prevalent, and many sexually active individuals become infected with the virus at some point. Several factors can increase the risk of HPV infection, including:

  1. Not getting the HPV vaccine: The HPV vaccine provides protection against certain types of HPV, reducing the risk of infection.
  2. Engaging in sexual activity without a condom or with multiple sexual partners: Unprotected sexual activity, particularly with multiple partners, increases the likelihood of coming into contact with the virus.
  3. Having had another sexually transmitted infection (STI): Having a history of STIs can indicate behaviors that might also increase the risk of HPV infection.
  4. Sexual history of partners: Having sexual contact with individuals whose sexual histories are unknown or who have a high risk of HPV infection can elevate your own risk.
  5. Early sexual activity: Initiating sexual activity at a young age may increase the chances of exposure to HPV.
  6. Weakened immune system: Conditions like HIV or the use of immunosuppressive medications, such as those following organ transplantation, can impair the immune system’s ability to combat HPV and other infections.

Understanding these risk factors can help individuals make informed decisions about their sexual health and take appropriate preventive measures, such as vaccination and safe sex practices, to reduce the risk of HPV infection and its potential consequences. Regular healthcare check-ups and screenings can also play a crucial role in managing and monitoring sexual health.


An HPV infection can indeed lead to various health problems, including:

  1. Cancer: Genital HPV infection has been strongly linked to several types of cancer, including cervical cancer. Certain high-risk types of HPV are also associated with cancers of the vulva, anus, penis, and mouth and throat. However, it’s important to note that not all HPV infections lead to cancer. Regular Pap tests are essential for women who have been infected with higher-risk types of HPV, as they help detect cervical cancer early.
  2. Pregnancy-related issues: Although relatively rare, there can be complications during pregnancy related to genital warts caused by HPV. These complications may include warts becoming larger, which can make urination difficult. Warts on the vaginal wall can hinder the stretching of vaginal tissues during childbirth. In very rare cases, a baby born to a pregnant individual with genital warts can develop warts in the throat, which may require surgical intervention to prevent airway obstruction.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, regular screenings, and safe sexual practices are crucial for reducing the risk of HPV infection and its potential complications, including cancer and pregnancy-related issues. It’s important for individuals to consult with their healthcare providers for personalized guidance on HPV prevention and management.


Getting the HPV vaccine is indeed an effective way to help prevent genital warts and reduce the risk of contracting certain types of HPV. Additionally, limiting the number of sexual partners and practicing safe sex by consistently using condoms can further reduce the risk of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

It’s important to note that while condoms are a valuable tool for reducing the transmission of many STIs, they may not provide complete protection against HPV. HPV can infect areas of the body that are not covered by a condom, so it’s possible to contract the virus even with consistent condom use. Therefore, combining vaccination with safe sexual practices and regular healthcare check-ups, including screenings and discussions with doctors, is the most comprehensive approach to reducing the risk of genital warts and HPV-related health issues.

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